Within a federal system, government agencies and regulatory policies can be fractured -- even at odds with each other. National actors share power with their counterparts in states and localities, as do presidents with Congressional leaders, and bureaucrats with judges. Understanding the broad economic and political contexts of environmental policymaking illuminates the motivations behind policy choices of various interested parties, from the National Park Service and the EPA to environmental activists and members of Congress. Rothenberg utilizes basic economic ideas to provide, not only a fresh look at how the U.S. deals with environmental ills, but a way of thinking about policy making in general.
Environmental Choices: Policy Responses to Green Demands
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Table of Contents
Tables and Figures
The Economic Context: Environmental Quality as a Normal Good
The Political Context: Constitutional Foundations and their Political Implications
Outline of Analysis
Traditional Justification: The Tragedy of the Commons
The Right to Know: Informational Rationales
Do the Right Thing: The Moral Imperative
Several Notes of Caution: The Case Against Government Intervention
Grounds for Action and Caution
The Evolution of Environmentalism
Before "Environmentalism": The Nineteenth Century
Beginnings of Environmentalism: 1870-1920
Increasing Supply and Fluctuating Demand: 1920-1960
The Environmental Movement and the EPA: 1960-1980
Contemporary Environmentalism: 1980-Present
Environmental Policy Evolution: Growth and Fragmentation
The Demand Side: Organized Interests and Environmental Politics
The Supply Side: Formal Political Institutions and the Environment
Linking Demand and Supply: Implications for Public Policy
Mandates for Implementation
Enforcement: Deterrence, Cooperation, Information
Political Impacts on Implementation
The Perils and Pitfalls of Implementation
The Case for Policy Devolution
The Case for Policy Centralization
Federalism and Environmental Policy
Federalism in Theory and Practice
The Land Use Agencies
Conclusions: Government as Steward
Environmental Regulation Circa 1970
Growth and Fragmentation
The EPA's Many Responsibilities
General Trends: Rationalization and Compliance
Regulation, Fragmentation, and Contemporary Environmental Policy
Successes and Failures
The High Cost of Progress: Proximate and Fundamental Causes
Sustaining Environmental Quality
Lawrence S. Rothenberg, Northwestern University
Lawrence S. Rothenberg is the Max McGraw Distinguished Professor of Management and the Environment at Northwestern University, as well as the co-director of the Ford Motor Company Center for Global Citizenship. He is author of numerous articles in public policy, political economy, and political science as well as three previous books covering a broad set of related issues.